Paper & Ink Examination

FDS also undertakes non-invasive forensic examinations of papers as well as writing and printing inks.  It is necessary to do so in matters where a question arises as to: whether a document has been altered; when an entry was written and/or a document created; the order in which entries were written; whether a document is genuine or counterfeit; recovering and deciphering faded/bleached/obliterated/erased entries; whether documents or entries thereon are original or reproduction; the method of production of a document; whether multiple documents have a common source; and so on.

In those cases where non-invasive examination is unable to provide sufficient information to address the questions raised, it may be necessary to consider invasive paper and/or ink analysis and FDS can put you in contact with specialists in those fields.  Invasive examination techniques require samples to be taken from the document.  Therefore, it is important to remember that all non-invasive forensic examinations and comparisons must be completed prior to invasive examinations in order to avoid loss of potential evidence.

Related case studies: 

Altered medical record

A surgeon was defending a medical malpractice suit and produced three pages of patient medical records in support of his case that he had cautioned the plaintiff patient as to the risks associated with a proposed medical procedure.  The warning appeared on page 2 of the n

Cheque alterations & endorsement

Notwithstanding the gradual decline in the use of cheques, the intercepting of cheques between being filled out and being banked (often while in the mail but sometimes by a person on the inside) is an ongoing problem. 

Counterfeit Platinum Certificate

A dispute arose as to the genuineness of certain Platinum Certificates purporting to have been issued by the Union Bank of Switzerland.  The certificates, if genuine, represented a very significant monetary value. 

Counterfeit qualifications

The conduct of a real estate agent was investigated following several complaints against this person.  Certificates of qualification and registration held by the person were submitted to our laboratory as part of the investigation.

Diary entry addition

A case was submitted which required determining whether an entry in a diary that read "Meeting 2pm Signing Wend" (sic) was all written sequentially on the one occasion. 

Hospital patient history notes

A patient under care in hospital suffered complications which resulted in permanent health problems.  There was a question raised as to the attentio

Is it an original stamp?

Many organisations around the world rely on the use of official rubber stamp impressions to authenticate their documents.  The forensic document examiners at FDS undertake examinations of what purport to be original rubber stamp impressions on all manner of documents to make a

Police notebook entry

FDS was requested to examine an entry in a police notebook to ascertain whether or not it was a contemporaneous record of events.  The entry read "request witness protection".